Joints are formed by the ends of two or more bones and are connected by soft tissue called cartilage. Healthy cartilage serves as a protective cushion, allows smooth, and low-friction movements of the joint. If the cartilage has damaged by disease or injury, the tissues around the joint become inflamed and causes pain. With time, the cartilage wears away, allowing the rough edges of bones to rub against each other, resulting in more intense pain.
When only a part of the joint is damaged, surgeon may repair or replace the damaged part. However, when the entire joint is damaged, a total joint replacement is required. To replace a total hip or knee joint, the surgeon removes the diseased or damaged parts, followed by insertion of artificial parts, called prostheses or implants.
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